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The mammary glands are now examined from behind and opened if necessary. Superficial Examination Abdominal Cavity. This should done before help writing term paper opening the chest cavity, because the position organs may become modified, and blood and other fluids are liable find their way from one cavity into another and again, the blood in the presenting portion the abdominal organs will change its color after exposure the air. Note the Following Points a The relative position and general condition the abdominal organs.

The color and amount blood in the presenting parts. Whether there are any signs injlammation or the evidence foreign bodies or tumors. literature review dissertation Examine the vermiform appendix.

The amount fluid in the abdominal cavity.

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Normally a small quantity reddish serum will found, particularly in warm weather, at the most dependent portion the abdominal cavity.

If the quantity small can onl ascertained raising the intestines essays help from the pelvis.

When the fluid considerable, the exact amount should ascertained Perforation, invagination, and hernia the intestines Determine the height the diaphragm. Normall, on the right side, at the junction the fifth rib with the sternum, and the left reaches as high as the sixth.

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A variety pathological conditions change its position.

For instance, may raised when the contents the abdomen are greath increased in volume, and in new-born children who have never breathed.

It maj depressed enlargement of the lungs, disease the heart, or fluid in the pleural or pericardial cavities.

The presence the best custom essay writing service air or gas in the pleural cavity can determined either filling the abdomen with water and puncturing the diaphragm beneath the fluid that the air will bubble or a puncture may made through the thorax between the ribs, and the flame a match will deflected the escaping air. The thorax opened cutting the sterno-costal cartilages as close the end the ribs as possible, the cut being made downward, outward, and backward, and the knife held obliquely as not injure the underlying parts. Quite often the cartilages will found ossified and will necessary divide them a costotome. Next, separate the clavicles a semilunar incision at their attachment the sternum. Raise the sternum with the left hand and separate from the underlying parts. If there any adherence the sternum a slight twist will sufficient remove Superficial Examination Thorax. Observe the position, color, and degree distention the lungs. It should remembered that healthy lungs, as soon as the chest is opened, owing their inherent elasticity, will collapse, and when this normal collapse not seen generally due a loss of elasticity custom essays toronto as occurs in emphysema, inflammatory diseases binding the lung the chest wall, or the alveoli being filled with solid or fluid substances or pent-up air. Most complete distention seen when death due drowning or suffocation. The area the heart uncovered will vary according the degree collapse the lungs and the abnormal size the heart.

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